Monday, October 16, 2017

First Observation of a Neutron Star with Gravitational Waves and Light!

THE OBSERVATIONS

At about 8:41 am EDT on 17 August 2017, both LIGO observatories recorded a 100-second long gravitational wave (GW) signal that appeared to be coming from two neutron stars orbiting each other and merging together (this detection is called GW170817).  1.7 seconds later, the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor detected a short gamma-ray burst (GRB).  LIGO's online data analysis, along with Virgo not detecting the event due to its location in a part of the sky it isn't sensitive to, narrowed down the possible location of the gravitational wave source to the constellation Hydra (in the Southern Hemisphere) which overlapped with the area determined from the GRB detection.  Both the LIGO and GRB detectors put out circulars alerting the astronomy community to the independent discoveries; an event like this was unprecedented and became a priority target for observation.  LIGO also produced a luminosity distance (a method of estimating the distance to the source) of about 130 million light-years.

11 hours after the gravitational wave and GRB detections (the delay was caused by the time it took for the Earth to rotate observatories in South America into their nighttime sky), the 1-m Swope Telescope in Chile observed a new point of light (referred to as a transient) from galaxy NGC 4993, also about 130 million light-years away!  Approximately 70 other observatories, both on our planet and orbiting it, observed this new source of light: 11.5 hours after GW/GRB detection, infrared light was observed; 15 hours later, ultraviolet light was observed; as the days went on, the optical light from the source became redder (longer wavelength) and dimmer than the early days; 9 days later, x-rays were observed; 16 days later, radio waves were observed.

CLICK TO ENLARGE!
Left: GRB data (top) collected by Fermi and gravitational wave data (bottom) collected by LIGO.
Right: Source localization on the sky from the INTEGRAL GRB satillite (light blue band), Fermi (the dark blue disk), LIGO alone (green ovals), and LIGO and VIRGO data combined (dark green oval).  Notice that all sources identified the LIGO-Virgo area.  A new source of light (located at the intersection of the tic marks) was identified inside the overlapping area by the Swope telecope (top image inset). The image below the inset is of the same area but 20.5 days before this event showing that this source was not present. [Credit: LIGO, Virgo, Fermi, Swope, DLT40]


TURNING OBSERVATIONS INTO MEANING

The cause(s) of short GRBs have been the subject of much theoretical research; the predominant theory is that they are caused by the merger of two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole.  The problem is that light isn't capable of bringing us information about these kinds of systems.  So, we've seen many short GRBs, we have ideas about how they are made based on these observations, and have been waiting for evidence to either support or refute the theory.  Fortunately, gravitational waves bring us the information about the system that light can't, like the masses of the objects and how they moved around each other.  This is the first conclusive evidence that at least some of the short GRBs are created by neutron star mergers.
This visualization shows the coalescence of two orbiting neutron stars. The left panel contains a visualization of the matter of the neutron stars. The different colored layers are different densities, which have been made transparent to show more structure. The right panel shows how space-time is distorted near the collisions. The spiral wave distortions at the end of the merger propagate to Earth and are measured as gravitational waves. [Credit: (taken from ligo.org) Christopher W. Evans/Georgia Tech]


Light observations allowed us to observe the rapid fading of the brightness and gradual lengthening of the wavelength (reddening) of the light which is a signature of a kilonova explosion.  Kilonovae are also thought to be the source of most of the heavy elements in the universe.  (I have previouslyattributed these to supernova here; further research has shown that while a supernova can make some heavy elements, it can't make enough of the heavier ones like gold to account for the amounts we have.)  Breaking the light down into its different wavelengths (colors) tells us about the composition of the source or of elements being created.  Measurements like this showed that heavy elements were indeed created as predicted in this kilonova and supports that neutron star mergers may very well be the source of most of the heavy elements in the universe.


Periodic table indicating the sources of the elements.  Orange indicates formation from the merger of neutron stars like the source of GW170817. [Credit: Jenifer Johnson]


The timing of the arrival of gravitational waves and the gamma-ray burst (1.7 seconds later) are our strongest support yet that gravitational waves travel at the speed of light.  Detecting gravitational waves first is not unexpected since this system has been producing gravitational waves its whole life and we only saw the last 100 seconds of it.  It is the dynamics of what happens during the merger that produces the light in the form of a GRB, so we should expect a delay.  Even when considering different possible ways and times for light to be made in a system like this, our observations are consistent with the prediction that gravitational waves travel at the speed of light.


WHAT DID THIS NEUTRON STAR MERGER CREATE?

A remaining question that the observations we've made hasn't been able to answer is: What did this neutron star merger create: a very large neutron star or a black hole?  We simply don't know and the reason why is that we don't have a firm understanding of the equation of state (EOS) for a neutron star (EOS is a technical term for describing matter and how it behaves).  Depending on different possible EOSs, we can get either a small black hole or a very massive neutron star at some time after the merger.  We also looked for gravitational wave evidence of which it is since a small black hole would have produced gravitational waves at about 6000 Hz and a very massive neutron star would produce them up to 4000 Hz.  The LIGO detectors are not very sensitive at high frequencies, making finding evidence for a resultant black hole impossible.  We did search for gravitational waves consistent with the formation of a very massive neutron star until the end of the run on 25 August (8 days later) and didn't find anything.  We found nothing to support either possibility so we simply don't know!

The masses of stellar remnants are measured in many different ways. This graphic shows the masses for black holes detected through electromagnetic observations (purple); the black holes measured by gravitational-wave observations (blue); neutron stars measured with electromagnetic observations (yellow); and the masses of the neutron stars that merged in an event called GW170817, which were detected in gravitational waves (orange). The remnant of GW170817 is unclassified, and labeled as a question mark. [Credit: LIGO-Virgo/Frank Elavsky/Northwestern University]



THIS IS JUST THE START!

This is the true beginning of multi-messenger astronomy!  As was referred to in this post, gravitational waves, light, and neutrinos (looked for during this event but none were found) bring us different information about the universe.  Gravitational waves tell us about how mass moves around and how much of it there is; light tells us about temperature, and composition; neutrinos can bring us information about the nuclear reactions happening deep within a star.  The effort to make and share all of these observations require not just scientific knowledge, but cooperation on a large scale.  There are many things that divide us in our societies; this is something we should be proud to unite us!

Artist’s illustration of two merging neutron stars. The rippling space-time grid represents gravitational waves that travel out from the collision, while the narrow beams show the bursts of gamma rays that are shot out just seconds after the gravitational waves. Swirling clouds of material ejected from the merging stars are also depicted. The clouds glow with visible and other wavelengths of light. [Credit: NSF/LIGO/Sonoma State University/A. Simonnet]

48 comments:

  1. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello, and welcome to our websitefennec fox for sale UK for Fennec Foxes for Sale. A family run farm, we have extensive experience in breeding fennec foxes. We provide new homes for our baby fennec fox pets for sale. We equally provide shipping services to ensure your fox arrives your location
      fennec foxes for sale near me with no hassles. Due to Fennec Foxes being illegal in certain states, we do not facilitate delivery nationwide.fennec fox as a pet Our Fennec Foxes for Sale
      fennec foxes for sale near me
      fennec foxes for sale near me are limited to a select states which consider it legal. We equally facilitate the acquisition of Permits in states which require on before owning a fennec fox as a pet.Fennec Foxes as Petsfennec fox for sale
      Though not very common, Fennec foxes can be kept as pets.fennec fox breeders They are petite, save for their enormous ears. Fennec foxes behave much like dogs, but since they are not domesticated, they do require careful socialization. You’ll need to take precautions against them escaping when kept as pets. Before deciding on adopting one
      fennec foxes for sale near me of these beautiful little animals, be sure you are legally allowed to keep them where you live.
      buy fennec fox online

      Delete

    2. Quality Assured Research Research Chemicals for Sale
      When it comes to buying fine research chemicals online , quality is the key. constantly strives at providing you with the continuing evaluation, innovation and improvement to quality. We assure you the highest degree of confidence in all of our products not limited to but including cocaine for sale, LSD for sale, heroin for sale, pain medications for sale etc. Here at buychemstore, we pride ourselves on safety. That’s why we are constantly focused on providing our customers with a wealth of information. Not only are we a place to buy research chemicals for sale online, but a place to learn about both the advantages and proper treatment of research chemicals.you can click here to get more info
      Dank Vapes Carts For Sale
      In the buchemstore.com catalogue, you can buy research chemicals, buy cocaine, buy heroin, buy LSD tablets, buy pain medication online with and without prescription and more is growing every day. If you require high purity research chemicals or other products that you are unable to find listed on our site. Please don’t hesitate to contact our kind and courteous sales staff

      buy xanax online

      buy oxycontin online

      pain medication for sale

      lsd for sale

      buy xanax online

      buy oxycontin online

      Delete
  2. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies

    1. Quality Assured Research Research Chemicals for Sale
      When it comes to buying fine research chemicals online , quality is the key. constantly strives at providing you with the continuing evaluation, innovation and improvement to quality. We assure you the highest degree of confidence in all of our products not limited to but including cocaine for sale, LSD for sale, heroin for sale, pain medications for sale etc. Here at buychemstore, we pride ourselves on safety. That’s why we are constantly focused on providing our customers with a wealth of information. Not only are we a place to buy research chemicals for sale online, but a place to learn about both the advantages and proper treatment of research chemicals.you can click here to get more info
      Dank Vapes Carts For Sale
      In the buchemstore.com catalogue, you can buy research chemicals, buy cocaine, buy heroin, buy LSD tablets, buy pain medication online with and without prescription and more is growing every day. If you require high purity research chemicals or other products that you are unable to find listed on our site. Please don’t hesitate to contact our kind and courteous sales staff

      buy xanax online

      buy oxycontin online

      pain medication for sale

      lsd for sale

      buy xanax online

      buy oxycontin online

      Delete
  3. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  4. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  5. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  6. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Dear Admin,
    Greetings of the day. Thanks for sharing a worthwhile post which represents your creativeness. See: Variance TV Removal Guide and Best movers and packers in Salt Lake

    ReplyDelete
  8. I really loved the post! It was a great help for me. Thanks! 50% off on kaspersky

    ReplyDelete
  9. Buy metrovac pet dryer Speedy dog grooming dryerare built in the USA with high-quality components and all metal housing. Unlike plastic dryers, they will not melt or crack.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello, and welcome to our websitefennec fox for sale UK for Fennec Foxes for Sale. A family run farm, we have extensive experience in breeding fennec foxes. We provide new homes for our baby fennec fox pets for sale. We equally provide shipping services to ensure your fox arrives your location
      fennec foxes for sale near me with no hassles. Due to Fennec Foxes being illegal in certain states, we do not facilitate delivery nationwide.fennec fox as a pet Our Fennec Foxes for Sale
      fennec foxes for sale near me
      fennec foxes for sale near me are limited to a select states which consider it legal. We equally facilitate the acquisition of Permits in states which require on before owning a fennec fox as a pet.Fennec Foxes as Petsfennec fox for sale
      Though not very common, Fennec foxes can be kept as pets.fennec fox breeders They are petite, save for their enormous ears. Fennec foxes behave much like dogs, but since they are not domesticated, they do require careful socialization. You’ll need to take precautions against them escaping when kept as pets. Before deciding on adopting one
      fennec foxes for sale near me of these beautiful little animals, be sure you are legally allowed to keep them where you live.
      buy fennec fox online

      Delete
  10. Hello there,
    Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed browsing your blog posts. After all I'll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again very soon!
    Best Packers and Movers in Kolkata, Honest Packers
    Packers and Movers in Kolkata
    Movers and Packers in alipore Kolkata
    Honest packers and movers in alipore Kolkata is NO.1 company which ultimately helps you in shifting your goods when you are relocating.

    Thank You

    ReplyDelete
  11. Wooow.. Nice post, Thank your for sharing useful Information.
    We are Frontline Relocation Packers and Movers Vadodara is Trusted and Most verified movers and packers service provider in All over India. We have 25K+ Happy Customers all over india.

    Movers and Packers in Vadodara,
    Packers and Movers in Alkapuri,
    Transportation Service In Vadodara,
    Packers and Movers in Vadodara,
    Packers and Movers in Makarpura,
    Packers and Movers in Gotri,
    Packers and Movers in Ajwa Road,
    Packers and Movers in Karelibaug,
    Packers and Movers in Manjalpur,

    Thank You.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Professional Packers And Movers Pvt. Ltd.
    Websites
    http://www.professionalpackersindia.com

    Packers And Movers in Kolkata

    Packers And Movers in Chandigarh

    Packers And Movers in Chennai

    Packers And Movers in Lucknow

    Professional Packers and Movers is one of the renowned service provider for packing and moving of goods. We are one of the known names in Packers and Movers industry. We work for both international & domestic markets. Our aim is to provide maximum customer satisfaction. We always honor your commitments.


    Professional Packers and Movers is one of the renowned service provider for packing and moving of goods. We are one of the known names in Packers and Movers industry. We work for both international & domestic markets. Our aim is to provide maximum customer satisfaction. We always honor your commitments.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Hello, and welcome to our websitefennec fox for sale UK for Fennec Foxes for Sale. A family run farm, we have extensive experience in breeding fennec foxes. We provide new homes for our baby fennec fox pets for sale. We equally provide shipping services to ensure your fox arrives your location
    fennec foxes for sale near me with no hassles. Due to Fennec Foxes being illegal in certain states, we do not facilitate delivery nationwide.fennec fox as a pet Our Fennec Foxes for Sale
    fennec foxes for sale near me
    fennec foxes for sale near me are limited to a select states which consider it legal. We equally facilitate the acquisition of Permits in states which require on before owning a fennec fox as a pet.Fennec Foxes as Petsfennec fox for sale
    Though not very common, Fennec foxes can be kept as pets.fennec fox breeders They are petite, save for their enormous ears. Fennec foxes behave much like dogs, but since they are not domesticated, they do require careful socialization. You’ll need to take precautions against them escaping when kept as pets. Before deciding on adopting one
    fennec foxes for sale near me of these beautiful little animals, be sure you are legally allowed to keep them where you live.
    buy fennec fox online

    ReplyDelete
  14. Buy Vyvanse and Promethazine – Codeine Cough Syrup by Actavis Online
    Our Online Pharmacy boasts of one of the largest collection of Prescription pills for sale online. Our website is designed to facilitate the shopping process and is secured, all to ensure you are Safe and Secure when purchasing from us. From our listed inventory, you can buy the following pills and powders online; Bath Salts, Cialis, Vyvanse,Hydrocodone, Oxycontin, Ecstasy (MDMA) ,buy aderall online Adderall. Buying prescription drugs online has never been made easier. What are you waiting for? Do not hesitate to order from us today. Are you concerned about dosage and recommendations? Contact our LiveChat Agent and have your queries solved. buy oxycodone onlineYou can equally contact us HERE . Order Prescription Pain Pills and more online from us and benefit from our amazing pricing!Despite its long history, we didn’t discover how aspirin works until the early 1970s. Unlike narcotics, aspirin drugs are real workhorses that actually go tobuy viagra online the source of pain and stop it. When cells are damaged, they produce large quantities of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase-2. This enzyme,buy anxiety pills online in turn, produces chemicals called prostaglandins,buy anxiety pills online which send pain signals to the brain. They also cause the area that has been damaged to release fluid from the blood to create a cushion so the damaged cells don’t take any more of a beating.buy pain killers online An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain. Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. They are distinct from anesthetics, which temporarily affect, and in some eliminate, sensation buy xanax onlineinstances completely eliminate, sensation

    ReplyDelete
  15. Macaw Parrots For Sale Fennec Fox Pet For Sale
    Hello, and welcome to our website for the best hand raised macaw parrots for sale. We pride ourselves in the best taming practices of macaws among aviaries. All of our macaws are bred in a disease-free Biosecure breeding sanctuary. They are well socialized, having been raised in our home as members of our own family in order for them to become ready to be a member of yours. They are quite comfortable around all ages, including the elderly and young children. When you purchase a bird from Us, we are committed to offering lifetime support and guidance to you and your family. Hand Raised Parrots for Sale, Macaw Parrots for Sale Macaw Parrots Aviary
    Macaw Parrots For Sale
    Macaw Parrots Aviary
    Hand Raised Parrots for Salee
    fennec foxes for sale near me
    Fennec Foxes as Pets
    Fennec Fox Pet For Sale
    FENNEC FOX BREEDERS

    ReplyDelete
  16. We are the Original, With Quality , Best Vape Carts and Exotic Carts , We deliver worldwide without any Hassels. Best Prices Ever with Free Shipping Coupons.
    Buy Vape Carts Online Buy Vape Carts Online
    Buy vape carts online with its oil 100% solvent-free cannabis concentrate, unmatched in its potency, purity, and flavor. Dank-Vape is a translucent oil, anywhere from 75%-98% THC, and is activated by our specially-developed process to make it effective in oral and trans-dermal applications. Available in Syringe form, and with all-natural flavors and 100% Cannabis derived terpenes, Dank-Vape is setting the standard in medicinal cannabis. All Dank-Vapes ingredients are sourced from specific THC of medical grade cannabis and is tested at OPPM for any contaminants and residual solvents.
    Buy Vape Carts Online
    Best Place to Buy Vape Carts Online
    Best Vape Carts and Exotic Carts
    1 gram cannabis oil vape cartridges
    buy cheap vape carts online without hassle
    Berry, Blackberry Kush, GSC, Fruity Pebbles
    purity, and flavor. Dank-Vape

    ReplyDelete
  17. We are the Original, With Quality , Best Vape Carts and Exotic Carts , We deliver worldwide without any Hassels. Best Prices Ever with Free Shipping Coupons.
    Buy Vape Carts Online Buy Vape Carts Online
    Buy vape carts online with its oil 100% solvent-free cannabis concentrate, unmatched in its potency, purity, and flavor. Dank-Vape is a translucent oil, anywhere from 75%-98% THC, and is activated by our specially-developed process to make it effective in oral and trans-dermal applications. Available in Syringe form, and with all-natural flavors and 100% Cannabis derived terpenes, Dank-Vape is setting the standard in medicinal cannabis. All Dank-Vapes ingredients are sourced from specific THC of medical grade cannabis and is tested at OPPM for any contaminants and residual solvents.
    Buy Vape Carts Online
    Best Place to Buy Vape Carts Online
    Best Vape Carts and Exotic Carts
    1 gram cannabis oil vape cartridges
    buy cheap vape carts online without hassle
    Berry, Blackberry Kush, GSC, Fruity Pebbles
    purity, and flavor. Dank-Vape

    ReplyDelete
  18. We are the Original, With Quality , Best Vape Carts and Exotic Carts , We deliver worldwide without any Hassels. Best Prices Ever with Free Shipping Coupons.
    Buy Vape Carts Online Buy Vape Carts Online
    Buy vape carts online with its oil 100% solvent-free cannabis concentrate, unmatched in its potency, purity, and flavor. Dank-Vape is a translucent oil, anywhere from 75%-98% THC, and is activated by our specially-developed process to make it effective in oral and trans-dermal applications. Available in Syringe form, and with all-natural flavors and 100% Cannabis derived terpenes, Dank-Vape is setting the standard in medicinal cannabis. All Dank-Vapes ingredients are sourced from specific THC of medical grade cannabis and is tested at OPPM for any contaminants and residual solvents.
    Buy Vape Carts Online
    Best Place to Buy Vape Carts Online
    Best Vape Carts and Exotic Carts
    1 gram cannabis oil vape cartridges
    buy cheap vape carts online without hassle
    vape dank
    purity, and flavor. DankVape

    ReplyDelete
  19. We are the Original, With Quality , Best Vape Carts and Exotic Carts , We deliver worldwide without any Hassels. Best Prices Ever with Free Shipping Coupons.
    Buy Vape Carts Online Buy Vape Carts Online
    Buy vape carts online with its oil 100% solvent-free cannabis concentrate, unmatched in its potency, purity, and flavor. Dank-Vape is a translucent oil, anywhere from 75%-98% THC, and is activated by our specially-developed process to make it effective in oral and trans-dermal applications. Available in Syringe form, and with all-natural flavors and 100% Cannabis derived terpenes, Dank-Vape is setting the standard in medicinal cannabis. All Dank-Vapes ingredients are sourced from specific THC of medical grade cannabis and is tested at OPPM for any contaminants and residual solvents.
    Buy Vape Carts Online
    Best Place to Buy Vape Carts Online
    Best Vape Carts and Exotic Carts
    1 gram cannabis oil vape cartridges
    buy cheap vape carts online without hassle
    vape dank
    purity, and flavor. DankVape

    ReplyDelete
  20. Buy Vyvanse and Promethazine–Codeine Cough Syrup by Actavis Online Our Online Pharmacy herbipharm best place to buy online without prescription boasts of one of the largest collection of Prescription pills for sale online. Our website is designed to facilitate the shopping process and is secured, all to ensure you are Safe and Secure when purchasing from us. From our listed inventory, you can buy the following pills and powders online;Vyvanse,Hydrocodone, Oxycontin,Ecstasy (MDMA),buy aderall online. Buying prescription drugs online has never been made easier. What are you waiting for? Do not hesitate to order from us today. Are you concerned about dosage and recommendations? Contact our LiveChat Agent and have your queries solved. buy oxycodone online You can equally contact us HERE. Order Prescription Pain Pills and more online from us and benefit from our amazing pricing!Despite its long history, we didn’t discover how aspirin works until the early 1970s. Unlike narcotics, aspirin drugs are real workhorses that actually go to buy viagra online the source of pain and stop it. When cells are damaged, they produce large quantities of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase-2. This enzyme, buy anxiety pills online in turn, produces chemicals called prostaglandins, buy anxiety pills online which send pain signals to the brain. They also cause the area that has been damaged to release fluid from the blood to create a cushion so the damaged cells don’t take any more of a beating. buy pain killers online An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain. Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. They are distinct from anesthetics, which temporarily affect, and in some instances completely eliminate, sensation buy xanax online
    For more information on our products visit our website herbipharm.com
    contact us:
    email: infor@herbipharm.com
    text/whatsapp…+1(304)508-3011

    ReplyDelete
  21. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete

  22. Buy dank vape scarts now. Our oil is a concentrate of cannabis 100% free of solvents, without equal in its potency, purity, and flavor. Dank-Vapes carts is a translucent oil, anywhere from 75% to 98% THC, and is activated by our specially developed process to be useful in oral and transdermal applications. Available in the form of a syringe, and with all-natural flavors and terpenes derived from 100% cannabis, Dank-Vape scarts is setting the standard in medical cannabis. All Dank-Vapes ingredients are obtained from medical grade cannabis-specific THC and tested in OPPM to detect contaminants and residual solvents cannabis e-liquid oil, Buy Dank Vape Scarts now HERE and have it delivered to your door. Other partners include Our dispensary is the best and safest place to order Vape pens online. Customer satisfaction is our top priority, and we never fail to exceed customer expectations! Contact . DANK VAPES
    Our Dispensary today for all your cars. Buy vape cars online without a prescription.

    Buy Dank Vape Scarts now

    BRASS KNUCKLES
    710 KINGPEN
    DANK VAPES

    EXOTIC CARTS
    STIIIZY
    online without a prescription
    Dank-Vapes carts

    ReplyDelete

  23. Buy dank vape scarts now. Our oil is a concentrate of cannabis 100% free of solvents, without equal in its potency, purity, and flavor. Dank-Vapes carts is a translucent oil, anywhere from 75% to 98% THC, and is activated by our specially developed process to be useful in oral and transdermal applications. Available in the form of a syringe, and with all-natural flavors and terpenes derived from 100% cannabis, Dank-Vape scarts is setting the standard in medical cannabis. All Dank-Vapes ingredients are obtained from medical grade cannabis-specific THC and tested in OPPM to detect contaminants and residual solvents cannabis e-liquid oil, Buy Dank Vape Scarts now HERE and have it delivered to your door. Other partners include Our dispensary is the best and safest place to order Vape pens online. Customer satisfaction is our top priority, and we never fail to exceed customer expectations! Contact . DANK VAPES
    Our Dispensary today for all your cars. Buy vape cars online without a prescription.

    Buy Dank Vape Scarts now

    BRASS KNUCKLES
    710 KINGPEN
    DANK VAPES

    EXOTIC CARTS
    STIIIZY
    online without a prescription
    Dank-Vapes carts

    ReplyDelete

  24. Buy dank vape scarts now. Our oil is a concentrate of cannabis 100% free of solvents, without equal in its potency, purity, and flavor. Dank-Vapes carts is a translucent oil, anywhere from 75% to 98% THC, and is activated by our specially developed process to be useful in oral and transdermal applications. Available in the form of a syringe, and with all-natural flavors and terpenes derived from 100% cannabis, Dank-Vape scarts is setting the standard in medical cannabis. All Dank-Vapes ingredients are obtained from medical grade cannabis-specific THC and tested in OPPM to detect contaminants and residual solvents cannabis e-liquid oil, Buy Dank Vape Scarts now HERE and have it delivered to your door. Other partners include Our dispensary is the best and safest place to order Vape pens online. Customer satisfaction is our top priority, and we never fail to exceed customer expectations! Contact . DANK VAPES
    Our Dispensary today for all your cars. Buy vape cars online without a prescription.

    Buy Dank Vape Scarts now

    BRASS KNUCKLES
    710 KINGPEN
    DANK VAPES

    EXOTIC CARTS
    STIIIZY
    online without a prescription
    Dank-Vapes carts

    ReplyDelete
  25. Buy Cheap Vape carts online near me now and best flavors and dank woods prices online

    By Dank vapes carts

    Dank vapes carts has over the years been a steady replacement for cannabis oil vapes.

    Dank vapes have grown as an illegal company and we await seeing this backbone economyrise to one day be legal in every state of the USA.

    Vaping has steadily reduced the number of people who actually go into smoking and therefore has increased the health standards of  a few. Buy vape carts online ,online vape suppliers, and dank vapes carts wholesale suppliers are on a steady rise in the black market supplying products such as chernobyl, OG kush, Gelato, Chemdawg, Mars OG. These are names of some renowned dank carts being sold in the black market.

    Buy dank vapes carts now online near me!!!Dankvapeonlinestore.com and a host of other online ships provide consumers with the efficacy to consume these dank vape carts products and best dank vape flavors without having to present medical cards.

    Free shipping, coupons on delivery are some of the reasons these dank vapes carts online stores have a constant flock of clients. However a census review shows a lot of scam has however joined this online legal vape supplies with customers never receiving what they order.

    Where to buy dank vapes carts Online.

    I sacrificed $2000 to do this online survey and come out with the real online store's that do supply vapes carts over the mail.I consequence ally lost $800 but glad I was able to detect the spammers from the real suppliers. 

    KEY POINTS

    Dank vapes carts spammers are the page 1 to 2 guys with high Google search console rankings. Real companies do not have a lot of time advertising. 

    Buy vape carts online on www.dankvapeonlinestore.com

    Buy dank vapes online on www.vapehighlife.com

     Dank vape carts reviews by most online bloggers indicates the vape carts have a lot of pesticides.This is however not founded and claimed as sabotage to the growing vape company by its competitors.Official laboratory results to claim this assertion are yet to be made. And until proven guilty, dank vape carts remain the best vapes in the market. Their sweet aromatic flavors and easy of use has made them gain grounds in the market.

    Dank woods. 

    Dank woods is also another kush or cannabis derivative made from kief and cannabis strains rolled in a 2g backwoods. Also known as dank woods prerolls , these ease to use products are fast becoming a household name in the USA and beyond. 

    Dankwoods prerolls though not produced by an official company are termed to be produced by producers of dankvape

    Coming in different cannabis flavors and strains, Dankwoods sell on the street wall markets at prices ranging between $25 -$40.

    Since Dankwoods are not an official company the production price of a single Dankwoods pre roll cannot be determined.Depending on consumers cravings, need of Dankwoods, and flavors, sellers prices may also change depending on the state where they find themselves. in California and Colorado where cannabis is not highly monitored as a crime, Dankwoods pre rolls vapes will sell at 25$. However this price cannot be compared to what will be gotten in Kentucky and Florida.

    Wholesales of dankwoods can be gotten in black market deals. However for those scared of getting snitched and handling Police files can get them discreetly shipped to doorsteps by online dankwoods suppliers.

    Dankwoods has no official account nor website. However in my quest for a legit online supplier, www.dankvapeonlinestore.com and www.vapehighlife.com came through with their deals. 

     

    ReplyDelete
  26. Welcome to Big Pharma Online Drugstore, BUY Xanax Online for sale online without prescription. Looking to buy prescription drugs online discreetly? You are at the right place! Here, you can buy drugs online without prescription and have it shipped and delivered to your location. As part of our expansion, we equally ship to all 50 States within the USA, The UK, Canada, Australia and a whole lot of countries worldwide. Buying prescription drugs like Actavis Promethazine – Codeine Cough Syrup, Ketof Cough, Hi Tech Cough Syrup, Tussionex Cough Syrup has never been easier. We equally employ the most discreet payment methods, Bitcoin being one of many. All to ensure your safety and discretion is guaranteed.Buy Drugs Online Without Prescription .Actavis Promethazine Cough Syrup with Codeine for Sale Online Without Prescription.Actavis Promethazine .How should I take Adderall
    BUY psychoactive bath salts
    BUY Xanax Online
    BUY BATH SALTS ( MONKEY DUST ) ONLINE
    Buy Adderall Online
    BUY TRAMADOL ONLINE
    BUY Promethazine Codeine
    BUY psychoactive bath salts
    BUY VYVANSE ONLINE
    BUY BATH SALTS ( MONKEY DUST ) ONLINE.

    ReplyDelete
  27. Welcome to Big Pharma Online Drugstore, BUY Xanax Online for sale online without prescription. Looking to buy prescription drugs online discreetly? You are at the right place! Here, you can buy drugs online without prescription and have it shipped and delivered to your location. As part of our expansion, we equally ship to all 50 States within the USA, The UK, Canada, Australia and a whole lot of countries worldwide. Buying prescription drugs like Actavis Promethazine – Codeine Cough Syrup, Ketof Cough, Hi Tech Cough Syrup, Tussionex Cough Syrup has never been easier. We equally employ the most discreet payment methods, Bitcoin being one of many. All to ensure your safety and discretion is guaranteed.Buy Drugs Online Without Prescription .Actavis Promethazine Cough Syrup with Codeine for Sale Online Without Prescription.Actavis Promethazine .How should I take Adderall
    BUY psychoactive bath salts
    BUY Xanax Online
    BUY BATH SALTS ( MONKEY DUST ) ONLINE
    Buy Adderall Online
    BUY TRAMADOL ONLINE
    BUY Promethazine Codeine
    BUY psychoactive bath salts
    BUY VYVANSE ONLINE
    BUY BATH SALTS ( MONKEY DUST ) ONLINE.

    ReplyDelete
  28. For the past decade our customers have come to depend on us for our expertise in parrot training, quality rearing, and customer service. What sets us apart from the rest is our personal approach. One-on-one service every step of the way. We are committed to Hand-rearing Macaw Parrots. These vibrant, beautiful, curious, and intelligent species of parrots require significant attention so we focus on quality rather than quantity. All our Parrots are of excellent breeds and top qualityWE TREAT BIRDS LIKE ROYALTY
    Love and affection creates inseparable bonds with their human owners GET TO KNOW PARROTS THAT SPEAK
    they don't just speak, the wow with their intelligence BUY hyacinth macaw
    BUY PARROTS THAT SPEAK ONLINE.
    BUY BIRD Online
    BUY BIRD ONLINE.
    BUY PARROTS Online
    BUY LANITA’S MACAW ONLINE.
    BUY Blue and Gold Macaw Online
    BUY Spix Macaw ONLINE.
    BUY bluegold macaw parrotOnline
    BUY scarlet macaw ONLINE.
    BUY hyacinth macaw

    ReplyDelete
  29. For the past decade our customers have come to depend on us for our expertise in parrot training, quality rearing, and customer service. What sets us apart from the rest is our personal approach. One-on-one service every step of the way. We are committed to Hand-rearing Macaw Parrots. These vibrant, beautiful, curious, and intelligent species of parrots require significant attention so we focus on quality rather than quantity. All our Parrots are of excellent breeds and top qualityWE TREAT BIRDS LIKE ROYALTY
    Love and affection creates inseparable bonds with their human owners GET TO KNOW PARROTS THAT SPEAK
    they don't just speak, the wow with their intelligence BUY hyacinth macaw
    BUY PARROTS THAT SPEAK ONLINE.
    BUY BIRD Online
    BUY BIRD ONLINE.
    BUY PARROTS Online
    BUY LANITA’S MACAW ONLINE.
    BUY Blue and Gold Macaw Online
    BUY Spix Macaw ONLINE.
    BUY bluegold macaw parrotOnline
    BUY scarlet macaw ONLINE.
    BUY hyacinth macaw

    ReplyDelete


  30. Hello, and welcome to our website for Fennec Foxes for Sale. A family run farm, we have extensive experience in breeding fennec foxes. We provide new homes for our baby fennec fox pets for sale. We equally provide

    shipping services to ensure your fox arrives your location with no hassles. Due to Fennec Foxes being illegal in certain states, we do not facilitate delivery nationwide. Our Fennec Foxes for Sale are limited to a select states

    which consider it legal. We equally facilitate the acquisition of Permits in states which require on before owning a fennec fox as a pet..Fennec Foxes For Sale FENNEC FOX BREEDERS
    Home of the Best and Well Trained Baby Fennec Fox Pets for Sale. Adopt a Baby Fennec Fox Today
    fennec foxes
    fennec fox breeder
    buy fennec fox as pet
    fennex fox for sale
    buy fennec foxes
    fennex fox for sale
    fennec fox website

    ReplyDelete


  31. Hello, and welcome to our website for Fennec Foxes for Sale. A family run farm, we have extensive experience in breeding fennec foxes. We provide new homes for our baby fennec fox pets for sale. We equally provide

    shipping services to ensure your fox arrives your location with no hassles. Due to Fennec Foxes being illegal in certain states, we do not facilitate delivery nationwide. Our Fennec Foxes for Sale are limited to a select states

    which consider it legal. We equally facilitate the acquisition of Permits in states which require on before owning a fennec fox as a pet..Fennec Foxes For Sale FENNEC FOX BREEDERS
    Home of the Best and Well Trained Baby Fennec Fox Pets for Sale. Adopt a Baby Fennec Fox Today
    fennec foxes
    fennec fox breeder
    buy fennec fox as pet
    fennex fox for sale
    buy fennec foxes
    fennex fox for sale
    fennec fox website

    ReplyDelete
  32. Buydankvapeonline.com Vapes has been established by a team of avid vapers, which is why we know how to meet our customers’ specific needs. We take great pains to make our assortment as varied as possible. So that you can find all sought of devices and vape supplies under one roof. You no longer have to stray through the mazes of the Internet to get vape carts online. We have all of these and even more at very cheap prices
    Are you wondering where to get vape supplies online that will make your buy dank vape experience like no other? .Simply browse through our catalog and let buydankvapeonline’s Vapes exceed your expectations. At our store, you can buy dank vapes online, buy stiizy carts online, buy kingpens online, buy wholesale carts online, buy brass knuckles online at a click. Simply search by the device type or brand and then add the product that fits the bill to your cart. We will deliver it to you in no time so that you can enjoy your favorite clouds of vapor as soon as possible
    buy vape carts online
    buy dank vapes online
    buy stiizy carts online
    buy kingpens online
    buy wholesale carts online
    buy brass knuckles online
    buy Dank Vapes now
    buy KingPen online now
    where to buy dank vape online
    buy wholesale carts online now
    dank vape store

    ReplyDelete

  33. Great Article,thanks for sharing this piece of useful information with us . i really love them
    buy research chemicals
    Adderall
    dank woods prerolls
    lsd 100mcg blotters
    xanax

    ReplyDelete